Last of the Westland Whigs

In the late 17th century, the 'Westland Whigs' were the radical descendants of earlier Covenanters who had defied the absolutist rule of Stuart kings in south west Scotland.

Friday, February 10, 2017

A Galloway Glens Historic Landscape

Gaelic place names and evidence of historic land use in Kells parish on Southern Uplands Way.

I was hoping to present this in person as a contribution to the Galloway Glens Landscape Character Assessment on Friday 10 February 2017. Unfortunately the day long event was upstairs in Castle Douglas Community Centre and I had my son Callum with me in his wheelchair. The Community Centre has a stair lift but not a lift lift so I will post what I was going to discuss here instead.

I hope the notes and copies of documents/ maps are straightforward, but if not I will reply to any comments left.

This is information about the series of events on the Galloway Glens website.

The Galloway Glens Scheme will be supporting a suite of projects in the landscape of the Ken/Dee Valley, from Carsphairn in the north to Kirkcudbright in the south. Over the next few months, Northlight Heritage and a team of specialists in landscape studies will be working closely with communities in the area to better understand the local landscape and what makes it unique.

The team plan to take a holistic approach, integrating geology, bio-diversity, archaeology, history, folklore and many other strands, to create a fuller understanding of the overall picture of the landscape. This process, known as Landscape Character Assessment, is customary in all Landscape Partnerships that have been supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund, currently numbering around 100 across the UK.

The Landscape Character Assessment includes two main elements. A formal data gathering exercise has already begun, which will bring together information from a range of national and local organisations such as Dumfries and Galloway Council, Scottish Natural Heritage and Historic Environment Scotland. This process is designed to build a picture of the natural and cultural assets of the area which are protected or designated, such as Listed Buildings.

Alongside the more formal elements, the team will also be out and about as part of the Sights & Sites community engagement programme. They are keen to find out which places and views are important to local people, through a series of informal drop-in workshops and events across the area. ‘Landscape’ is interpreted in its broadest sense – not just as traditional views and scenery but as how people relate to it, changes to it in the past, present and future, and family connections to the area. The report will be freely published and available to all and promises to be a genuinely interesting review of the local landscape.

The landscape I am interested in is not going to be part of the ‘formal data gathering exercise’  because there are no ‘protected or designated’ sites within it. However, it is also likely to be missed out within the ‘informal’ part of the process because the historical sources of information about the landscape are not well known.

For example, the medieval Exchequer Rolls of Scotland and the Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court Deeds 1623-1700 are specialist/ academic historic sources which are not very easy to understand and interpret. I only made the connections between these sources, the landscape and its Gaelic place names while researching the Galloway Levellers uprising of 1724.

The Galloway Levellers opposed the eviction of people from farms to create ‘cattle parks‘ for herds of cattle which were then driven south to be sold in England. I needed to know how cattle farming in Galloway operated before the export trade with England developed. Going through the two volumes and 6000+ entries in the Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court Deeds 1623-1700  I found a two tacks (leases) for a farm which described how cattle were pastured on the 2000+ feet high Rhinns of Kells ‘in the summer half of the year’.

The Scottish Gaelic word ‘airigh’ means summer pasture. In the same (southern) part of the Rhinns of Kells there are two ‘airigh’ farms, both which had belonged to the medieval Lords of Galloway. My argument is that this suggests a continuity of land use over about 700 years which can-uniquely- be backed up by documentary evidence.

 I scanned and printed supporting documents and maps ready to take along to the drop-in session. Here they are:

Airigh is a Gaelic word for land used as summer pasture. There are several ‘airigh’ farms in the Galloway Glens once of which was recorded as ‘Clonnaree’ (now Clenrie) in 1456. This comes from ‘claon airigh’ meaning sloping summer pasture. Clenrie is on the east side of Miekle Millyea on the Rhinns of Kells and on the Southern Upland Way.

In 1678 and 1686, tacks (leases) for Drumbuie which is adjacent to Clenrie were drawn up. Both these tacks require the tenants to return any cattle pastured during the summer on Straveron Hill (on the west side of Meikle Millyea) to return them to the ‘heft’. This evidence suggests a continuity of land use, where the Rhinns of Kells were being used as summer pasture of approximately 700 years. Drumbuie was also recorded in 1456 as one of the farms which had belonged to the medieval Lordship of Galloway.

To the south of Clenrie and Drumbuie is Mid-Garrary which was recorded in 1456. This is another airigh farm name, from ‘garbh airigh’, rough summer pasture. Between Clkenrie and Mid-Garrary is Eldrick Hill. This is from the Gaelic ‘eileirig’, a deer trap.

In this part of the Galloway Glens we can see how the Gall-Ghàidheil, the Gaelic speaking descendents of Vikings, were able to make use of the resources of the Galloway uplands 1000 years ago. The pattern of land use established by the Gall-Ghàidheil s until the end of the eighteenth century when large sheep farming became the dominant land use. Since the 1960s, sheep-farming in turn has given way to forestry as the dominant land use, although this particular area has fortunately not been planted.

An extra layer of historical interest is contained in a tack for Hannaston and Drumbuie from 1741. The tenants were Samuel McConnel and his son John. In 1779, John McConnel’s brother James was the tenant of Hannaston. As noted in the Old Statistical Account for Kells, the lands had been improved by John Newall of Barskeoch and the rent was doubled. James  McConnel was unable to pay the new rent and left the farm in 1782.

The year before, his son James had decided not to become a tenant farmer and moved to Lancashire where his uncle William Cannan manufactured spinning mules and textile machinery. William’s father Thomas had been a tenant in Drumbuie. After serving his apprenticeship, James moved to Manchester.

Here, in partnership with John Kennedy from Knocknalling, also in Kells, James McConnel established a cotton spinning business which by 1815 had become the largest in Manchester.


After the surrender of Threave castle in the summer of 1455 to James II, the king requested William, Abbot of Dundrennan, to compile a list of all the lands in Galloway which had been owned by William, 9th earl of Douglas, as Lord of Galloway. The list of what were now Crown lands was produced in 1456 and recorded in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland.
[1. Map and list, from Andrew McCulloch Galloway-a Land Apart Edinburgh, 2000. ]

These lands included a cluster in Kells parish along the Garroch Glen from the river Ken to the Rhinns of Kells- Barskeoch (Barnskeach), Largvey, Largmore (Largmor) Drumbuie (Drumboy) and Clenrie (Clunnaree).
[2. Exchequer Rolls, Edinburgh, 1882, p.192]

Through the sixteenth century, most of the Crown lands in Galloway were sold off. The Gordon family acquired the lands in Kells but by the mid-seventeenth century the Newall family were owners of Barskeoch, Drumbuie, Clenrie, etc. Two later seventeen century tacks (leases) for Drumbuie exist.
[3. Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court Deeds 1675-1700, entries 1052 and 1420]

Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court Deeds 1675-1700 (Edinburgh, 1950)

Entry 1052 TACK (15 July 1686) by Adam Newal of Barskeoch, heritable proprietor of the lands under-written, to William and Andrew McClamrochs, lawful Sons to John McClamroch of Craginbay, of the 4 merkland of Drumbuy, with the pertinents, presently possessed by William Calwel and Andrew Irland, for 9 years from Whitsunday 1679, (with the option to both parties of ending this Tack after 5 years) for the payment of £120, the usual teind, prebendar and feu duties, public burdens, work and casualties for the first year, and after Whitsunday 1680 they are to pay 200 merks yearly with the foresaid duties, 2 stone of good butter or 10 merks, 1 dozen poultry fowls and 2 "fasterinevine henns;" and " to pay and lay in the work and service" of 40 loads of peats, providing sacks for carrying them, and 2 barrows with bearers to peat casting, 4 "naigs" one day yearly to harrowing, 2 men and 2 horses one day to the hay-stack making, and 4 shearers yearly, paying £3 in satisfaction of other work and service of men and horses paid by the present possessors ; the said Adam is to give timber, great and small, for the upkeep of the houses which the said William and Andrew are to keep wind and water tight;
should any of the said Adam’s cattle pasturing in Staiverran the summer half year come home through the said "rowme," the tenants promise not to molest them but either to put them back to the "heft" or allow them to pass peaceably homeward ; they are to pay all public burdens, maintenance taxations and levies of foot or horse and will be allowed the half of all discharges for such which they produce. At Clauchen of Dalry 2 December 1678 witnesses Robert Greirsone of Mylmark, John McNaght in Overtoune, James Chalmer of Wattersyd, and William Hunter in Midtowne of Clauchen.

Entry 1420 TACK (2 December 1689) by Adam Newall of Barskeoch, heritable proprietor of the lands under-written, to James McCutchine, lawful son to the deceased Alexander McCutchine in Drumbuy, of the half of the 4 merkland of Drumbuy and the piece called the Lumpe between the burns, with the pertinents, presently possessed by the said James, for five years from Whitsunday 1686, for the yearly payment of 160 merks, 1 stone of good salt butter in the summer time or 5 merks as the price thereof, 6 poultry fowls, and a fasteneven hen, with the work of 25 loads of peats, providing good sacks to carry them, with a man and a horse, a man and a spade and 2 bearers a day to the casting of them, a man and a horse to hay-stacking, "with a man and sheirs to the cliping off Straveran," and a man and a horse to fetch a load of lime or free stone; the said Adam promises to give timber, great and small, for upholding the houses and the said James is to keep them wind and water tight and leave them in good condition, and he is to leave " ryll trees and soil trees and staiks and doors and the lyk" which Andrew McClemeroch, present
tenant, leaves in the houses ; should any of the said Adam’s cattle pasturing in Strauveran the summer and harvest half year come to the Braidside or through his ground, the said James promises to put them back to the "heff" again; he is to pay all public burdens and be allowed for the same in his rent. At the Watersid 26 May 1686 ; witnesses Thomas Macaw in Garroch, Robert Macaw, his son, John Paisla, schoolmaster in Barskeoch. and John Makill there.

A tack from 1741 for Hannaston and part of Drumbuie also exists.
[4. Facts and Traditions Collected for a Family Record, David McConnel, Edinburgh, 1861, pp 116-7]

Sometime before 1848, the original Drumbuie farm was abandoned and a new farmhouse built. The original Drumbuie is shown on the first six inch edition Ordnance Survey map. Using the National Library of Scotland’s Side by Side Georeferenced Maps, the location can be identified as NX 573 810, which shows that some walls of the buildings remain.
[5. Map and satellite photograph image]

And finally- James McConnel and John Kennedy's Manchester cotton spinning factory, 1820

Friday, November 04, 2016

Old maps and the history of Castle Douglas

Old Maps and History

Roy’s Military Survey 1752-55, Carlingwark Loch and Carlingwark Burn ( NLS maps)

The map above shows the area between Threave castle on the Galloway river Dee and Carlingwark loch in Kelton parish, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. The red lines outline enclosures and the cross-hatching the ridges and furrows of arable fields. The winding course of the Carlingwark burn as it psses through an area of marshland between Carlingwark loch and the Dee above Threave island is clearly shown. The course of the road from Dumfries to Portpatrick can be seen, passing through the hamlets of Causewayend, Carlingwark, skirting the edge of the loch then heading towards Rhonehouse and Grainyford Bridge which had been built in 1736.

The map is not entirely accurate, since it shows Chapmanton farm close to Fuffock. The farm there was (and still is) Blackpark. Chapmanton is to the north-east of the location shown. Although not named, Kelton Mains (originally Kelton Grange) is shown with its plantations of trees and enclosures between Carlingwark burn and the river Dee. The map shows the red line of an enclosure running along beside the Dumfries-Portpatrick road. This was a dry-stane dyke and it features in the story of the Galloway Levellers Uprising of 1724.

In 1724 a group of Levellers assembled on Kelton Hill before heading off to level dykes in the neighbourhood. Captain Robert Johnston of Kelton Mains along with the Reverend William Falconer of Kelton managed to persuade the Levellers not to level the dyke at Furbarligget since it was a march dyke to built to keep cattle and livestock being herded along the Dumfries-Portpatrick road from straying into Johnston’s arable fields. As a sign of good faith, Johnston provided the Levellers with bread and beer and the dyke was saved.

The story sounds more like a folktale than history, but in 1724 William Falconer was minister of Kelton parish and Robert Johnston owned Kelton Mains which he had bought in 1706, when he represented Dumfries Burgh in the Scottish Parliament. The farmhouse of Kelton Mains, which still stands, was built by Johnston.

Roy’s map also captures features of the traditional landscape that were lost as the landscape was rationalised in the later eighteenth century. For example, a Leveller called John McKnaught lived on Meadow Isle croft. His father or grandfather was recorded as living in Meadow Isle on Aireland farm circa 1680. Roy’s map shows Meadow Isle on Airieland, but it had been abandoned by 1800. It was then briefly occupied by a team of dykers working on the farm. The last dyke they built used stones from the croft to build a dyke around what is now Meadow Isle field.

The dyke McKnaught had helped to level in 1724 was built to form a cattle park for Sir Basil Hamilton on Bombie Moor near Kirkcudbright. It is shown, rebuilt, on Roy’s map. The large cattle park Hamilton’s great-grandfather David Dunbar had had constructed in the 1670s can be seen at Baldoon in Wigtownshire. It is a reminder that although the next fifty years were to see major changes in the landscape, by 1755 the first stages of ‘improvement’ were already 80 years old in Galloway.

By 1797, as this detail from one of John Ainslie’s maps of the Stewartry shows, the landscape had been transformed

John Ainslie’s 1797 map showing Carlingwark canal and Castle Douglas (NLS maps)

In 1765, Sir Alexander Gordon of Greenlaw in Crossmichael parish, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright had a short section of canal cut through the marshland which lies between the Galloway river Dee and Carlingwark Loch. In 1766/7, a cut was made through Carlingwark Hill into the loch. This provided the canal with a better flow of water and partially drained the loch.

Historical sources, including the Old Statistical Accounts, provide information on the canal and its purpose. Shell-marl, muddy clay containing lime from the shells of fresh water snails and fish bones accumulated over thousands of years, was used as a fertiliser in the absence of local sources of lime stone. The marl was dredged up from the bottom of the loch and dug out from its margins after it had been partially drained. It was then loaded on to barges which transported the marl to farms in Balmaghie, Crossmichael, Parton, Kells, Balmaclellan and Dalry parishes. Oak bark for tanning and timber were taken back down the Ken/Dee river system to Carlingwark.

In 1764/5 a military road from Gretna to Portpatrick had been constructed and Carlingwark was on its route. Before the local road system was improved circa 1800, the canal and river system provided a north/south link for the Glenkens district to the east/west route of the military road. Unfortunately, Alexander Gordon had been an investor in the Heron and Douglas Bank of Ayr which failed in 1772. He was therefore unable to develop Carlingwark and decided to sell it along with the loch and marl workings.

In February 1786, wealthy Glasgow tobacco merchant William Cunninghame bought Duchrae (now Hensol) estate in Balmaghie. In July 1787 Cunninghame visited one of his new neighbours, Alexander Gordon of Greenlaw, who offered to sell Carlingwark to him.

We came in by Greenlaw village (deleted) or rather Carlingwark village, close by the loch, which was begun only a few years agoe by Mr. Gordon, and may contain now upwards of 100 houses and apparently rapidly increasing. For which place he informed me he had applyed to the Crown for a charter erecting it into a Burgh of Barony, with power to choose their own Baileys and Council, which he said would cost him about 40 guineas. Mr. Gordon informed me he had upon this Estate about 800 acres of ground, 400 acres of which with the Loch he wisht to sell, being much involved in debt and having a large family. This intimation he put to me so close that I was obliged to tell him it would not answer me to purchase, neither would it in my opinion answer any person but one who resided at or near the spott.


In 1789, William Douglas bought the lands of Carlingwark from Gordon and in 17912, founded a new town- Castle Douglas- which is shown on Ainslie’s map, along with a dotted line indicating the route of a new turnpike road, now the A 75. This replaced the Military Road between Dumfries and Portpatrick. It was designed for horse drawn transport rather than marching soldiers and so avoided high ground and even small hills as it curved and twisted to find the levellest route through the landscape.

As the network of ‘modern’ roads was extended, it became easier to transport lime. By the 1840s, when the New Statistical Account was compiled, the Carlingwark canal and the marl workings had fallen out of use. In 1864, the Kirkcudbright railway bridged the Carlingwark canal, as did the Castle Douglas by-pass in 1987. The railway bridge had been demolished after the line was closed in 1965, but in 2006 its foundations were used for a wooden footbridge when the course of the railway was made into a footpath. The footbridge was washed away in the Great Flood of New Year’s Eve 2015. It was replaced by a new footbridge in June 2016.

OS 6 inch to mile map showing Carlingwark canal and Kirkcudbright railway. (NLS maps)

The Carlingwark canal today.

Thursday, September 29, 2016

WW2- the defence of Castle Douglas 1940/1

Defence of Castle Douglas 1940-41

Lochside Park as its name suggests is next to Carlingwark Loch in Castle Douglas, south west Scotland. The area around the loch has been of strategic importance several times over the past 2000 years.- in the Iron Age/ Roman period, in the Middle Ages and since the late 18th century as an economic centre. Ancient trackways, Roman roads, a canal, railways and modern roads  reflect the historical and geographical importance of the area at a crossroads between north-south and east-west routes.

In 1940/41, fears of the Germans occupying Ireland and then invading south-west Scotland revived the Castle Douglas area’s military strategic importance. Connected to this period, a mystery concrete object in the park was initially identified as the base of a WW2 spigot mortar. However, Dumfries and Galloway Council archaeologist Andrew Nicholson identified it as part of a WW2 anti-aircraft battery and it is recorded as such in the regional Historic Environment Record. This prompted further research and discussion on social media which confirmed the original identification.

The following is based on an e-mail sent to the Council archaeologist asking for the HER to be amended and for three, possibly four, related WW2  sites in the town to be added. It is also hoped that the interpretation signs can be erected at the sites as part of the Galloway Glens Heritage Landscape project.

1. Dumfries and Galloway Historic Environment Record
Lochside Park Castle Douglas 
MDG 21956 Anti-aircraft Battery

Current record of MDG21956 as 'Anti-aircraft battery'

2. Galloway News article 24 June 2004 ‘Lochside Park Mystery Revealed’ 

In the article David Hamblin identified the mystery object as the base for a 29 mm spigot mortar, also known as the Blacker Bombard. As Mr Hamblin explained in the Galloway News article, the spigot mortar/ Blacker Bombard  fired a 20lb anti-tank mortar bomb with a range of 100 to 150 yards or a 14lb anti-personnel mortar bomb with a 500 yard range. It was not an anti-aircraft gun.

Object identified as spigot mortar base 24 June 2004

The article then quotes Jock Purdie, former Dumfries and Galloway councillor, now a member of  Castle Douglas Community Council. Mr Purdie’s father William was a member of the Castle Douglas Home Guard. Mr Purdie saw the spigot mortar being used by the Home Guard.

Preserved spigot mortar and reconstructed emplacement

On 8 July 2004, the Galloway News published a letter by George S Kirk in response to the 24 June article. Mr Kirk states that he was a member of Castle Douglas Home Guard for a year prior to be called up. Mr Kirk also said that the object ( MDG 21956)  is the base of a spigot mortar.

Home Guard using spigot mortar 1943

In the light of this evidence, the description of  MDG 21956 should be changed to ‘Spigot Mortar Base’.

3. Possible origin of mistaken identification

Between March 1943 and April 1944, a Light Ant-Aircraft regiment were based in Castle Douglas, with some members occupying Nissen huts in Lochside Park. However, they were equipped with mobile (towed, then self-propelling) 40 mm Bofors guns. They did not practice with them in Castle Douglas, but used the town as a base for training in preparation for D-Day.   A history of 7th Battalion, The Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire) / 92nd (Loyals) Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery 1940-1946 by Tom McCarthy (Birkenhead, 2012) . Chapter Five documents their time in Castle Douglas. Chapter Five is blogged here

Full text here

Towed Bofors 44 mm gun as used by 92nd LAA

Self-propelled Bofors 44 mm later used by 92nd LAA

4. Second spigot mortar site
In his letter, Mr Kirk said there was a second spigot mortar site ‘in the grounds of Rogerson’s garage, approximately 30 ft from the left  hand gate post, next to the fir tree adjacent to the roundabout’. This location would have been at the entrance to Castle Douglas railway station in the 1940s.

Rogerson's Garage on site of Castle Douglas station.
Spigot mortar base would have been under trees on right.
Now a pedestrian area at entrance to Castle Douglas Tesco

It was still there in early 2005 but unfortunately the spigot mortar base was lost when Castle Douglas Tesco was built. The fir tree still exists, but the spigot mortar base location is now a paved pedestrian area.

5. Tank trap/ road block on Abercomby Road

Both Mr Purdie 24 June and Mr Kirk 8 July describe traces of a WW2 road block on Abercomby Road. In 2004 this consisted of 8 small cast iron covers set into the pavement on either side of the road in front  4 and 6 Abercomby Road  on the west side and in front of  3-9 Abercomby Road on the east. (Just above the former St John‘s RC Church HER MDG 19076.)

Tank trap covers, Abercomby Road

When the pavement on the west side was resurfaced, four of the covers were lost, but four are still present on the east side. I have photographed these.  Three are marked ‘J Simpson Hurlford’. Originally a set of holes beneath the covers would have stretched across the road. In use the covers would have been removed and steel girders fixed into the holes, blocking the width of the road.  This would have been particularly effective against tracked vehicles such as tanks which could become trapped by even a single vertical post if they attempted to drive over it.

Similar tank trap being deployed 1941

Similar tank traps covers in Ardrossan

6. Tank/trap road block on B736, formerly A 75

In his letter 8 July 2004 Mr Kirk says there was a similar tank trap/ road block 100 yards east ( town side) of the Buchan Bridge on the former A 75. I have investigate this site, but there are no remaining signs of a tank trap/ road block.

Buchan Bridge- car crossing over it

Location of tank trap 100 yards east of Buchan Bridge

Taken altogether, these features would have created a defensive perimeter around Castle Douglas, to be manned by the Home Guard in case of a German invasion 1940/41.  Gordon Barclay If Hitler Comes Preparing for Invasion: Scotland 1940  (Birlinn, 2013, p 34) notes that on 14 May 1940 the War Cabinet discussed the possibility of a German invasion of Ireland which could then act as a springboard for an invasion of ‘western England, Wales or south-west Scotland’.  As Barclay points out this was an unlikely scenario, but one taken seriously during the summer of 1940. The defences put in place in Castle Douglas are likely to have been a response to this threat.

From If Hitler Comes Preparing for Invasion: Scotland 1940

From If Hitler Comes Preparing for Invasion: Scotland 1940 

7. Home Guard Auxiliary Castle Douglas Patrol bunker ‘in a quarry’.
This was mentioned by Mr Nicholson in a talk on the Archaeology of  the Ken/ Dee Valley, 18 September 2016.

List of Auxiliary Units, south of Scotland

I have investigated two former quarry sites in Castle Douglas, one beside Ernespie Road and the other behind Oakwell Road but both are filled in and there were no signs of a bunker  similar to the Beattock and  Moffat examples.

Possible secret bunker sites in old quarries

Sketch of Moffat Auxiliary bunker

Interior of Beattock Auxiliary Bunker
For more on the Auxiliary Units see         

             8. Interpretation signage
The history of Carlingwark Loch  2000 years ago and 250 years is already featured on interpretation signs. A similar sign interpreting its history 75 years ago in WW2 would be an appropriate addition.

9. Further Research 
Two miles north of Castle Douglas at the Townhead of Greenlaw crossroads there used to be a large concrete pad. My father said this was to stop tanks in WW2 churning up the tarmac as they used this route to avoid a weak bridge.[Possibly the A 75 bridge over the river Dee

But where were the tanks going? Probably to Kirkcudbright.

The Helmsley Station Master recalled they had tank trains every week, two or sometimes three, and at least 3000 tanks passed through the station. “On a tank train there were nine warflats, a store wagon, a guard’s van and one coach for the tank crews. They used to go up to Kirkcudbright for waterproofing for landing in enemy territory from the sea.”

From 1942 there was a tank training and testing range near Kirkcudbright (it is still in use). Tanks could be and were carried by train to Kirkcudbright. However the railway between Castle Douglas and Kirkcudbright was single track and Kirkcudbright station was much smaller than Castle Douglas.

Kirkcudbright station

Castle Douglas station
If the number of tanks being sent to Kirkcudbright for waterproofing ahead of D-Day was in the thousands, it may have been decided to send some by road from Castle Douglas.

There was also a camp at Glenlochar farm where Bailey Bridge building training took place. Next to Glenlochar Barrage (part of a hydro-electric scheme) an air raid shelter and anti-aircraft gun emplacement have been found and notified to the Council archaeologist by Scottish Power.

WW2 is still just within living memory. Most of the physical traces of WW2 in the Castle Douglas area have been lost or misinterpreted. Collecting and recording the accounts and memories of people who lived here then while we can is important.  

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Castle Douglas 1943-4-the 92nd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment

This is the longest and most detailed account I have found about Castle Douglas in WW2. It is taken from A history of 7th Battalion, The Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire) / 92nd (Loyals) Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery 1940-1946 by Tom McCarthy

It is also part of my family history. My aunt Evelyn Livingston met her future husband Ken How while he was stationed in Castle Douglas 1943/4.

March 1943 to April 1944
‘I reckon by 1944 we were the fittest men in the whole of the British Army with the training that we’d had. We were ready. The adrenaline was high and the feeling was, “Let’s get on with it and get it over with. The war won and get back home” – that was the feeling.’

THE demonstration of the 92nd’s growing skill was timely. For now a momentous undertaking was at hand. Early in 1943, 3rd Division was ordered to start training for the invasion of Sicily, only to see the assignment switched – mainly for political reasons – to a Canadian division.

But soon after, 3rd Division was given the task that would test its skill and courage to the limit and assure its place in history. It was to be one of only two British divisions which would spearhead the D-Day assault in Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy.
Being chosen to lead the liberation of Europe was a tribute to the military prowess of the ‘Iron Division’, whose proud history stretched back to the Napoleonic Wars, and which Montgomery had commanded during the fighting retreat to Dunkirk in 1940.

But it was also an awesome responsibility. Everything depended on troops getting ashore and establishing a beachhead in strength before the Germans could recover from the initial shock and hurl them back into the sea. If the Allies failed to gain a foothold in Europe, it would be catastrophic for the whole course of the war.

So in the early spring of 1943, all units of 3rd Division were ordered to concentrate in the west of Scotland to start the intensive programme of training that would make them ready for their crucial mission.

Between March 12 and 14, amid exceptionally fine weather, 92nd LAA moved north in convoy from Kent, staging at Stevenage and Doncaster, where the gunners bivouacked under the racecourse grandstand. The regiment’s destination was the small towns of Castle Douglas and Dalbeattie, north of the Solway Firth in Kircudbrightshire. Here, amid the hills, woods, rivers and lochs of the beautiful Southern Uplands of Scotland, the men started honing themselves and their equipment to a peak of fighting fitness.

The regiment deployed at various locations around the two towns. In Castle Douglas. Regimental headquarters was established in a large house [Craigroyston] at the eastern end of the main road, King Street. Much of the unit’s activities centred around Carlingwark Loch at the western edge of Castle Douglas, where Nissen huts were set up to house the troops. Other billets included a church and a bowling clubhouse.

The routine at Castle Douglas was constant training – PT, route marches, cross-country running, sport and, most of all, gun drill. ‘Castle Douglas seemed a peaceful haven after the mayhem of the Liverpool Blitz,’ wrote Michael Cullen. ‘It was also a pleasant surprise to find that we had a bed at last.

‘The camp consisted of a number of Nissen huts, one troop to each hut. Our gun crew were sergeant – Jack Smith. Layer for line – myself. Layer for elevation – Harry Woodall. Two ammo numbers – Bob Harris and Ginger Smith, “Smithy.” Also Cecil Willis, a wee lance bombardier who strutted about like a hen with bunions. He also, at times, let off a rather peculiar odour. I could only put this down to the fact that we had, of late, had quite a large amount of Spam and American Navy beans in our diet. I think the answer was blowing in the wind.

‘The following two months were taken up mostly with gun drill and lectures on aircraft recognition, a subject I took a great deal of interest in. It was, of course, a sitting-down job that gave the foot blisters a chance to heal!

‘The food had gone off a bit and they had developed the bad habit of putting curry powder in the stew, and even in the rice pudding – I think it had been left over from the time of the British Raj in India! This had given us a constant attack of the “trots!” This was rather inconvenient as our toilets consisted of a slit trench dug into the ground, with a rope stretched across. To vacate the bowels, one had to stoop over the trench and hang on to the rope for dear life!

‘Another item of food that seemed to be rather plentiful was a Japanese tinned salmon called Acky Bono. God knows where they had got this from, but when the tins had been opened, the smell was enough to send all the moggies in the town crazy to embark for foreign parts. In hindsight, I wondered if it was some preconceived plan the Nips had to exterminate as many Britons as possible before entering the war.’

Third Division was initially earmarked not for the invasion of Normandy, but for the attack on Sicily. The men of 92nd LAA had some inkling of the Sicily mission and one day early in 1943, the news went round the regiment that hot weather equipment had now arrived in the quartermaster’s stores in preparation for the operation.

But it was not to be. In late April, at the insistence of Canadian Military Headquarters in Britain, a Canadian division – the 1st Infantry – was instead given the Sicily invasion task, displacing the British division.

Len Harvey, a 19-year-old Londoner in F Troop, 318 Battery, recalled that he and his comrades were disappointed at this news. ‘We did feel let down because our adrenaline was high – we were hyped up and ready to go.’

But soon after, the CO of 318, Captain Robert Tennant Reid, called the men together to read them a letter that had arrived from the top brass, telling them that they would instead now be training for the invasion of North West Europe.From then on, each Bofors crew was boosted from seven men to nine men. This was when Leo McCarthy was transferred to Gun F3 of F Troop, a tight-knit team under the auspices of Sergeant Bill Fletcher.

‘Sergeant Fletcher always said he needed a regular, good No 2 layer for line and we certainly got one in Leo,’ said Len. ‘He oozed confidence and Gun F3 was now complete. Leo became a very good friend – he was 11 years older than me and was almost a father figure.’

Len also admired Sergeant Fletcher, who came from Little Hulton, near Bolton. ‘He was a good sergeant, a good leader,’ he said. ‘He was a very special man.’

In 92nd LAA, Len was a Cockney surrounded by Scousers – but he got on famously with them. Born in Limehouse, East London, he had volunteered for the Army after working as a page boy at the Langham Hotel in the West End and later as a fitter’s mate in Barking power station.

Following training as an artilleryman, he found himself in a quiet posting near Edinburgh. Wishing to see more action, he put himself forward for service overseas. Instead, he was sent to join 92nd LAA in Castle Douglas.

Now the countdown to Overlord had begun, life got ever harder for the 92nd LAA men. ‘If we thought previous training was tough, we soon learned it was mild compared to the regime we were now put under,’ said Len. ‘There were physical exercises every morning at 6am, route marches up to 20 miles, cross-country running in ten-mile stints. We were woken from sleep, put into troop-carrying lorries, dropped 15 miles away at 6.30am and told to make our own way back to camp, with breakfast being served at 8am. If we were late back, we missed breakfast.’

Because Len looked so young, Sergeant Fletcher used to send him across to farms to ask for eggs when the troop was out on manoeuvres. Len recalled that the Scots were kind and generous. ‘The people were wonderful. I think they took pity on me – I only looked about 16 or 17. It is said that Scottish people are thrifty, but on every farm I went to, the farmers gave me eggs willingly and never asked for a penny or anything in exchange, though I would have been prepared to pay them if they had asked.

‘The Women’s Institute could not do enough to help us, at times laundering and sewing and in Dalbeattie a WI lady would make sure that the men on guard duty got a hot beverage. In helping us, they must have felt they were helping their husbands and sons, because they too were in the Forces. My time in Scotland left me with a feeling of immense respect for the people and the way they welcomed us.’

By contrast, the French farmers would turn out not to be so generous after the regiment landed in Normandy the following year. On the evening of D-Day, as the troop was dug in near Benouville, Sergeant Fletcher sent Len to a nearby farm to ask for eggs. Len recalled: ‘In broken English, the farmer asked, “What have you got for the eggs? Money no good. You got soap, cigarettes, chocolates?”’ Eventually, Len swopped three bars of soap for a dozen eggs.

The 92nd’s initial invasion exercises started with combined operations at Rothesay on the Isle of Bute. Then at the end of March, 318 moved to Inverary, Argyllshire – 40 miles north- west of Glasgow – for a fortnight of training with 8 Infantry Brigade and naval units. By day and night on the waters of Loch Fyne, the 92nd practised beach landing, disembarking guns and supply vehicles from landing craft and deploying them to their allotted area.

Meanwhile, a series of week-long trips, made by each battery in turn, started to 9 LAA Practice Camp at Cark-in-Cartmel, near Grange over Sands on the edge of the Lake District, overlooking Morecambe Bay. First to go was 319, followed by 317 and 318.
At Cark, Michael Cullen recalled, the guns would be pointed out to sea. ‘A plane would fly across pulling a sock or a drogue, as they called it. We would then take a sighting under the directions of the commanding officer. As it was a moving target, it was quite difficult to hit. We did, of course have to aim at the drogue, and not the plane – a fact that one or two of the crews had failed to digest. As you can guess, there were one or two near-misses – at one point, the pilot had refused to take off. Who could blame him – I think he deserved the VC!’

Back in Castle Douglas, classes in aircraft recognition, a vital skill for Bofors gunners, were held three times a week. The men had to know instantaneously if a plane they spotted was a friend or an enemy. ‘By the time we actually got to Normandy and went into action, we could tell every plane that was in the sky,’ said Len Harvey.

‘We had a class with models and charts. A little fellow would teach us and try and catch us out. He’d show you a silhouette and say, “What’s that?” or he’d show you a model and say, “What’s that?” But you got to know the aircraft from all different angles. I could tell every plane later on in the war and it was all because of the training we got there.’
As May opened, the emphasis was on endurance work, including day-long hill walking and river crossing. But there was an unexpected off-duty spree for a few of the men – a night on the town in Castle Douglas.

It came courtesy of Joe Lavender, the second gunlayer on F3. Joe, who came from Chester, was also the unit’s unofficial barber, earning sixpence or so a time for cutting the men’s hair. This money steadily accumulated and one day in early May he placed a £10 bet on a horse called Herringbone in the 1,000 Guineas – and it won.

With his windfall, Joe took his fellow gunlayer Leo McCarthy and two other friends out for the evening, and the drink flowed. The four returned to their billets extremely late and the worse for wear, making a lot of noise. Needless to say, their comrades took a dim view of being so rudely awakened by the revellers.

Throughout May and into June, there were full divisional exercises, during which tracer fire from a Bofors was used to indicate the width of an infantry advance, a technique that later came into its own on the battlefield. There was also practice on the anti-tank range at Cummertrees near Annan, wireless exercises, night deployment and digging-in practice.

40 mm towed Bofors anti-aircraft gun

For the gun crews, digging-in was vital. When a Bofors was deployed, a pit was excavated for it to give as much protection as possible from counter-battery fire and marauding aircraft. However, some of the 92nd’s more muscular members found their small infantry spades were not up to the job of digging a gun pit in anything like a reasonable time and nicknamed the spades ‘Fifth Column Shovels’. After digging trials, Captain Reid agreed and told his men they could have heavy-duty navvy shovels instead.

On June 11, it was the turn of 317 to journey north to Inverary, where it joined 185 Infantry Brigade for combined operations training. Meanwhile, the rest of the regiment was suddenly ordered south to Kent for a month of ADGB duties. Sending gunners 450 miles from Scotland to the South Coast when presumably there were already adequate anti-aircraft units in Kent seems at first glance a trifle odd. However, the surprise operation was designed by the top brass to test the 92nd’s battle-readiness and its ability to mobilise swiftly.

Travelling in convoy via Catterick, Doncaster and Stevenage, the gunners reached their new locations on June 17. Guns were deployed at Birchington, Finglesham, Lympne RAF aerodrome, Richborough, Cheriton and Hawkinge aerodrome. Another task was apparently to protect slipways that were earmarked for invasion craft from possible German bombing raids. Nine days later, 317 rejoined the regiment, deploying at Minster, Snowdown Colliery and Sandwich. On July 9, the battery’s guns opened fire on a DO 217 raider.

However, one unit of the regiment managed to combine the move to Kent with a little unofficial recreation. When the order came to go south, the 92nd’s group of driver-radio operators were 70 miles north of Castle Douglas in Stewarton, between Kilmarnock and Glasgow. They had been sent there to meet up with their Canadian counterparts, who were now earmarked for Sicily, in order to train them on their new wireless sets.

‘It was a very pleasant experience with the young Canadians – and we also learned to drink coffee instead of tea and smoke Sweet Caporal cigarettes,’ recalled Driver-Op Jim Holder-Vale, from Walthamstow in North East London, who had joined the regiment in December 1942 at the age of 18. ‘We said goodbye to them as they left in their trucks. The windshields were painted green to prevent reflection of the Mediterranean sun, with just vision slots for the driver and passenger.’

Arriving back at Castle Douglas, the driver-ops found the rest of 92nd LAA had already left for Kent. They were given food and supplies and told to follow. ‘But we decided we would make our own way there,’ said Jim. ‘We would not use the Army camps en route and I thought it wouldn’t be a bad idea to call in and see my Mum and Dad in London. So off we went and we eventually turned up in our four trucks outside my parents’ house.’

Jim picked up his girlfriend Joan, who lived nearby, and they all went back to his parents’ house. ‘We had a marvellous evening,’ he recalled. ‘Mum and Dad made us as welcome as possible with rationed grub.’

The driver-ops parked for the night in nearby Epping Forest, sleeping in their trucks, and returned to Jim’s house for breakfast before finally continuing their journey to Kent. It had been a welcome interlude of normality.

The regiment was in Kent until July 14, when it was ordered back to Scotland, arriving at Castle Douglas on July 19. By now, new Mark V self-propelled Bofors Guns had been delivered and one troop in each battery started training with them.

Self-propelled  40 Mm Bofors anti-aircraft gun

In August, further exercises were held with 185 Brigade and there were two complete divisional exercises, lasting into September. Trips to Cark for firing practice resumed and there was anti-tank training at Craignair, south of Castle Douglas. On 21st September, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Loder-Symonds assumed command of the 92nd when Lieutenant-Colonel Hollwey was posted to take over 124 LAA.

Throughout October training went on, with regimental deployment exercises, wire-cutting and night attack by patrols. In November, there was an interlude of entertainment and recreation in the form of a visit by the band of The Loyal Regiment, plus inter-regiment rugby and boxing matches.

Among the regiment’s boxing enthusiasts was Philip Parks, a Liverpudlian who had volunteered for the Army on the outbreak of war in 1939, when he was 19. On one occasion, he had three fights in Castle Douglas town hall, winning two. While in Scotland, he also won the heart of a girl who was working in the Naafi and they were married.

Another soldier who found a sweetheart in Castle Douglas was the Regimental Sergeant Major, Len Nott. One day, he saw a girl called Eileen Maloney crossing the road in the townand it was ‘love at first sight’. Eileen, from Glasgow, was stationed in Castle Douglas with the Land Army. They married in February 1944, witnessed by his best man, Robert Wright – a fellow NCO from 92nd LAA. Len and Eileen remained devoted to each other and were married for 38 years until his death in 1982.

At least three other 92nd LAA men, Lieutenant Johnny Kitchin, Sergeant Bill Fletcher and Gunner Billy Baker, also wed local girls.

Philip Parks, meanwhile, was promoted to bombardier, but things did not go smoothly. ‘His duty one particular day was to deliver military mail around Castle Douglas, which entailed meeting officers all day long and, of course, saluting them,’ his son Philip recalled.

‘Dad got a bit fed up with all this and on one occasion, seeing an officer, he pretended to be sorting his mail and did not salute, which resulted in him being on a charge, i.e. failing to salute. This led to him being reduced back to a gunner. While on this charge, he was confined to regimental headquarters, which was Craig Royston House. But at night, the sergeant in charge suggested that as Dad was a married soldier living in Castle Douglas, he could go home – but be back by 6am.’

At the end of January, the final phase of 3rd Division’s assault training started when units moved 100 miles north-west to the area around Nairn and Inverness on the Moray Firth. There, they linked up with the ships of Naval Task Force S (for Sword), which was to carry the division to the Normandy beaches.

Farms as far as eight miles inland were evacuated to make way for the thousands of soldiers pouring into the coastal area. On November 28, 318 journeyed to Brackla airfield near Nairn, a few miles from Inverness. Billetted in a Nissen hut inside one of the hangars, the gunners spent the next two months taking part in a series of full-scale invasion exercises along the Moray Firth. Often amid appalling weather, the men refined their loading and assault techniques in tank landing craft, with 92nd LAA concentrating on the stretch of water between Chanonry Point and Fort George.

‘The Highlands of Scotland were a sight we had only seen on picture postcards,’ said Michael Cullen. ‘Although winter was setting in, the beauty of this place really was something to us city lads. We arrived at Inverness and pitched camp in a wood. The weather was pretty damp and consisted of a perpetual drizzle they called Scotch mist.
‘We asked one of the locals if it ever stopped raining. “Well, laddie,” he answered, “Can you see those hills over yonder? Well, when you can see them, you can be sure it’s going to rain and when you can’t see them, it’s pissing down!” (Please excuse the descriptive language).

‘The camp was a quagmire of mud, but that didn’t stop the Major from the bullshit. We still had to Blanco our webbing! I’m pretty sure the Tory brasshats had shares in the Blanco and Brasso factories! Despite the weather, we continued loading and unloading trucks, setting up and dismantling the gun and they timed us to the clock until we had become proficient and could unhitch and jack up the gun in the space of one minute. We were like drowned rats at the end of each day!

‘Loch Ness was a huge expanse of water, but the only monsters we saw were wearing three stripes! After a month of this, it was back to base at Castle Douglas. On the way back, we witnessed a nasty accident. One of the three Hurricanes that had been practising the dive-bombing of our convoy had failed to notice the power lines that stretched across the road, and had gone through the overhead wires. There was a terrific blue flash and the plane dived into the ground. It had corkscrewed into an adjacent field.

‘The whole convoy had stopped at this point and we had all gone across to offer assistance, but sadly the pilot was beyond any help. This had brought home to us all the stupidity of all this, and how easy it was to depart this life. This accident had highlighted our resolve to get this lot over as soon as possible, and get back home in one piece, if possible. It was only a “barmstick” who wanted to die for his country – we wanted to live for ours.’

As the historic year of 1944 opened, the rest of the regiment was training apace, especially with vehicle waterproofing, which was vital to prevent engines becoming stalled in the surf of the invasion beaches. The 92nd REME (Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers) workshop smothered vulnerable parts of the motors in a greasy paste and attached breather tubes to be used for air intakes and long pipes to take the exhaust gases clear of the water. In one waterproofing trial on January 15, a convoy drove into the River Dee near New Galloway, north of Castle Douglas. Three-tonner lorries fared well, but the strong current submerged 15cwt trucks and jeeps.

Fast-flowing water was not the only hazard. Although the SP Bofors were strong and solidly-based, they could become bogged down, especially in the swampier parts of the Scottish countryside. On these occasions, their built-in winches proved very useful, pulling the gun free by fastening the winch cable to trees or to other vehicles and slowly winding it in. Even so, it could sometimes be a close-run thing.

‘One of our guns once became so deeply swamped in a bog that it took two others as well as its own winch to drag it to hard ground,’ recalled Lieutenant John (Jack) Prior of 92nd LAA. ‘The gun had sunk to its axles and we seriously wondered if we would lose it altogether. I could almost hear the court of inquiry being turned into a court martial, with yours truly committed to repaying the loss from his pay – spread over several hundred years!’

Jack had joined the Home Guard on leaving school in 1940 before going on to officer training and receiving a commission. After service with ADGB units on the hazardous Dover Command, he joined the 92nd in December 1943 and later became the regimental Intelligence Officer.

On January 17, 317 moved up to Brackla for its two months of intensive invasion exercises with Task Force S and the rest of 3rd Division. The south shores of the Moray Firth were substituted for the Normandy beaches as, amid swirling snowstorms, the gunners practised assault landings in Burghead Bay. During one of these exercises, tragedy struck. A brigadier, waiting on the dunes to observe the landings, was hit and killed by a tank which had failed to spot him as it crested the rise.

Early in March, 317 travelled further north to Tain on the Dornoch Firth, where destroyers and a cruiser demonstrated a naval artillery bombardment on the headland of Tarbat Ness. This dramatically showed the men the weight of firepower that would be supporting them during the Normandy landings and gave them some idea of the hellish noise of it all. On the 27th, the battery moved south again to concentrate at Munlochy near Inverness for further exercises, which took the men into the hills around Culloden.

On January 26, the CO of the 92nd, Lieutenant-Colonel Loder-Symonds, left to take over as artillery commander of British 1st Airborne Division. He would be in charge of artillery during Operation Market Garden at Arnhem in September 1944. Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Charles Bazeley DSO RA assumed command of the 92nd.

February started for 318, now back from Brackla, with anti-tank training at Cummertrees. The regiment practised telephone silence, communicating by radio only. On the 6th, a detachment left for a 3rd Division conference at Langholm, north of Carlisle, to be addressed by Montgomery, who was Commander-in-Chief of 21st Army Group and the land commander for Overlord. Gunner Philip Parks was among the men chosen for the Langholm detachment – but, because he was at his in-laws’ home in New Galloway, it meant he had first to pedal 12 miles by bicycle to join the trucks going there.

The rest of the month – amid snow – saw telephone silence exercises, casualty evacuation and mine practice, assault training, lectures and further waterproofing trials. A new troop of eight 20mm guns was attached to each battery.

Throughout March, there were further lectures, instructional films and organised recreational training, including forced marching competitions. RHQ personnel practised on Craignair range with Sten guns and Piat anti-tank weapons. But, as always, the main thrust of training was on deploying the guns for swift action.

‘Above all, the guns had to be at instant readiness in case of sudden enemy aircraft attack,’ recalled Jack Prior. ‘This was emphasised and practised ad nauseam, but the work paid off when we reached Normandy and I cannot recall any gun getting stuck or caught on the hop by a 350mph ME 109 or FW 190.

‘Other specialised training included taking cover on the gun, nearby, or under other shelter against shelling and mortaring, which were the main fire to be avoided. In fact of course, there was little chance of this, because the shelling was often accompanied by bombing or strafing, for which we had to be prepared and ready for action.

‘Knowledge of the gun mechanism had been gathered years before and we had been handling the guns until it had become second nature. But we had to ensure that in doing our own specified jobs we did not get in each other’s way in a very confined space, albeit in the open air.’

As winter slowly gave way to spring, the men of 92nd LAA, along with the rest of 3rd Division, were reaching a peak of fighting fitness and perfecting their Overlord tasks. Now enthusiasm began to be tinged with impatience. ‘We knew we were to be part of the invasion,’ said George Baker. ‘We just didn’t know where or when. The men were all for getting on with the job. The feeling was, “Why don’t we go and get it over with?”’
Len Harvey said: ‘I reckon by 1944 we were the fittest men in the whole of the British Army with the training that we’d had. We were ready. The adrenaline was high and the feeling was, “Let’s get on with it and get it over with. The war won and get back home” – that was the feeling.’

But as April opened, the years of waiting were finally drawing to a close. From all parts of Britain, hundreds of thousands of soldiers and gigantic quantities of tanks, guns and equipment began streaming south by road and rail to assembly areas ready for the great cross-Channel operation.
On April 5, 1944, 92nd LAA started its own journey, with RHQ and 318 in the vanguard. ‘It was supposed to be a secret, but the people knew that we were going south to take part in the invasion,’ said Len Harvey. ‘Every hamlet, village and town we passed through, they lined the pavements waving and cheering as we drove by, some throwing flowers into the vehicles. Our two gunlayers, Leo McCarthy and Joe Lavender, must have had sore backs because everyone was patting them as they went by, saying: “Go on, lads – give it to them.”

Saturday, July 09, 2016

Castle Douglas - A Guide (1967)

Castle Douglas- A Guide by J M and L M Maclure